Inventory of the Joseph A. Towles Artifact Collection, 1949 - 1992

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Descriptive Summary

Abstract: African American anthropologist Joseph Allen Towles (1937-1988) met British anthropologist Colin Macmillan Turnbull (1924-1994) in 1959. The two exchanged marriage vows in 1960 and they lived together in an interracial, homosexual relationship until Towles' death in 1988. Towles and Turnbull spent various periods of time in Africa, conducting fieldwork on the Mbuti, Mbo, and Ik peoples. Turnbull authored The Forest People, The Mountain People, The Human Cycle, and Tibet. Turnbull succeeding in publishing Towles' work posthumously: Nkumbi Initiation and Asa: Myth of Origin of the Blood Brotherhood Among the Mbo of the Ituri Forest. Both Towles and Turnbull died from complications related to AIDS.
The Joseph A. Towles Artifact Collection contains artifacts documenting Colin Turnbull and Joseph Towles' professional lives and research interests, including materials relating to the Bira, Mangbetu, Mbo, Mbuti, and Pende peoples of Central Africa and the Dodoth, Ik, and Turkana peoples of East Africa, along with artifacts from other regions of Africa. The collection also reflects Turnbull's trips to India and contains artifacts acquired during Towles' and Turnbull's Tourism as Pilgrimage project.
Title: Joseph A. Towles Artifact Collection, 1949 - 1992
Creator: Towles, Joseph A.
Repository: Avery Research Center at the College of Charleston
Call Number: ART 1989.001
Language of Material: Material in English
Extent: 170 linear feet
(86 boxes)

Biographical Note

African American anthropologist Joseph Allen Towles was born in Senora, Virginia on August 17, 1937 to Arcellius Towles (died 1959) and Lucy Blair (died 1991). Educated in Virginia, Joseph A. Towles graduated high school in 1957 moved to New York City to pursue an acting and writing career. In 1959, Towles met English anthropologist Colin Macmillan Turnbull, with whom he exchanged marriage vows in 1960; they lived together in an openly gay, interracial relationship until Towles' death.

Colin Macmillan Turnbull was born in November 24, 1924 in Harrow, England to Helen Dorothy Wellesley Chapman (1894-1977) and John Rutherford Turnbull (1884-1975). Educated at Oxford University, he joined the Royal Navy in 1942 and finished his undergraduate degree in 1949. He then lived in India for two years in the ashram of female guru Sri Anandamayi Ma, and traveled to Africa in 1951, where he encountered the Mbuti people, pygmies living in the Ituri Forest in the Belgian Congo and Zaire (later, the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Turnbull lived in the camp of Patrick and Anne Eisner Putnam who resided among the Mbuti. After a brief stint as a gold miner in Canada, Turnbull resumed his study in anthropology at Oxford in 1954, receiving his doctorate in 1964. He returned to the Congo in 1954 and 1957 to continue his research, and published The Forest People (1962), for which he received acclaim for his portrayal of the Mbuti as exemplars of the human capacity for goodness and love. In 1959, he became curator of African Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History and became a United States citizen in 1965. He resigned in 1969, claiming museum discrimination against his partner Joseph Towles and other African Americans and began teaching at Hofstra University. He later accepted faculty appointments at the State University of New York, Vassar, Virginia Commonwealth University and George Washington University. He also was a visiting lecturer at the College of Charleston.

After working as an actor and model, Towles volunteered in the Anthropology Department at the American Museum of Natural History with Turnbull. From 1965-1967, he assisted with the creation of "Man in Africa Hall" (opened 1967), a permanent exhibit later called the "Hall of African Peoples." He also researched and constructed the "Slavery in the New World" subsection of the museum. In 1963, he entered Pace College to study history and anthropology. Before finishing, he enrolled at Makarere University in Uganda in 1965 to study anthropology and sociology. He eventually graduated from Pace in 1968.

Turnbull and Towles were in Africa from 1965-1967, conducting fieldwork among the Ik of Northern Uganda. In 1970, they returned to the Congo where they conducted fieldwork on the Nkumbi circumcision initiation ritual for boys and the Asa myth of origin among the Mbo of the Ituri forest. Towles received his Ph.D. from Makerere University in 1979.

Turnbull's book on the Ik, The Mountain People (1972) received harsh criticism (including Towles') for its portrayal of the starving people as a soulless community. In 1973, theater producer Peter Brook adapted the book to the stage and created The Ik, a dramatic production with Turnbull as the main character. From 1974-1976, Towles and Turnbull assisted with the stage adaptation and traveled with the company.

The couple then devoted themselves to other projects. In 1979, they traveled the world studying the concept of tourism as pilgrimage. Towles turned to biblical research and writing plays and novels; Turnbull studied the prison system and the death penalty in the United States. In 1983, Turnbull published the semi-autobiographical work The Human Cycle, which angered Towles for its omitted references to their relationship. Around the same time, Towles started exhibiting signs of mental illness. In 1983, he was diagnosed with syphilis, and in 1985 with HIV/AIDS.

On December 19, 1988, Towles died from AIDS. Turnbull staged a double funeral, with two caskets, one representing his own spirit. Following Towles' death, Turnbull spent much of his energy dedicated to memorializing and drawing attention to his partner's legacy. He bequeathed his money and property to the United Negro College Fund and arranged for his and Towles' papers and possessions to be transferred to the Avery Research Center. He moved to Samoa and wrote "Lover and Beloved," an unpublished account of his relationship with Towles. He then moved to Bloomington, Indiana to help build the Tibetan Cultural Center with the Dalai Lama's brother, Thubten Norbu, with whom he had published the book Tibet in 1968. He succeeded in publishing two of Towles' scholarly works in 1993 and moved to Dharamsala, India, where was ordained as a Buddhist monk by the Dalai Lama and became known as Lobsong Rigdol. In 1994, he was airlifted back to Virginia where he died of AIDS on July 28 and was buried next to Towles.

» Note: For more biographical information, see In the Arms of Africa: the Life of Colin M. Turnbull by Roy Richard Grinker (2000). Turnbull's major works, The Forest People (1962), The Mountain People (1972), and The Human Cycle (1983) as well as Towles' Nkumbi Initiation (1993) and Asa: Myth of Origin of the Blood Brotherhood Among the Mbo of the Ituri Forest (1993) are available at the Avery Research Center as are many of their publications in various periodicals.

Chronology of Research Trips

1949-1951 Colin Turnbull studies in India with Sri Anandamayi Ma and Sri Aurobindo
1951-1952 Turnbull travels to the Ituri forest, commencing his studies on the Mbuti people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire)
1957-1958 Turnbull travels to the Ituri forest to conduct additional research
1965-1966 Turnbull conducts fieldwork among the Ik of Uganda while Towles studies for an anthropology degree at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
1970-1971 Turnbull conducts additional fieldwork in the Ituri forest
1979 Turnbull and Towles conduct research for their Tourism as Pilgrimmage project, traveling to East and Southeast Asia, India, Polynesia, East Africa, and the Middle East
1985 Turnbull travels to Samoa
1991-1992 Turnbull travels to Dharamsala, India

Collection Overview

This collection contains artifacts documenting Colin Turnbull and Joseph Towles' professional lives and research interests, divided into nine series by geographic origin. A large portion of the collection relates to the Bira, Mangbetu, Mbo, Mbuti, and Pende peoples of Central Africa, mostly collected in the Ituri forest region of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). Also well-represented are the Dodoth, Ik, and Turkana peoples of East Africa, mostly collected in northeastern Uganda. In addition to materials collected from these specific peoples and regions, the collection contains artifacts from Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Ethiopia in East Africa; the North African countries of Egypt and Morocco; and Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali in West Africa. An array of decorative and utilitarian objects are contained in the collection, such as musical instruments, jewelry, paintings, ivory carvings, wooden carvings, masks, ritual and religious objects, recreational objects, weapons, furniture, cooking implements, and dishes. Also included is a large quantity of bark cloth. The majority of artifacts have been given the inclusive date range of 1954-1989 to reflect Colin Turnbull's travels to the African continent.

The collection also reflects Turnbull's trips to India and Turnbull and Towles' Tourism as Pilgrimage research, in which the couple traveled to East and Southeast Asia, India, Polynesia, East Africa, and the Middle East. Additionally, there is a small portion of personal objects, such as the equipment Towles and Turnbull used on their trips and items from a shrine that Turnbull kept honoring Towles and Sri Anandamayi Ma.

Collection Arrangement

In cases where objects have multiple possible origins or sources that cross contemporary national boundaries, they have been cross-listed under multiple countries or regions, thus duplicate listings of some objects exist. The term "Unspecified Country" has been used to indicate objects that have been traced to a general continent or region but not a specific country.

Please note that the object names and thumbnail images link to a new webpage, which displays the object and additional information within the Lowcountry Digital Library.

1. Africa Region

1.1. Sub-Saharan Africa

1.1.1. Central Africa

1.1.1.1. Congo (Democratic Republic)

1.1.1.2. Central Africa (Unspecified Country)

1.1.2. East Africa

1.1.2.1. Ethiopia

1.1.2.2. Kenya

1.1.2.3. Rwanda

1.1.2.4. Tanzania

1.1.2.5. Uganda

1.1.2.6. East Africa (Unspecified Country)

1.1.3. West Africa

1.1.3.1. Côte d'Ivoire

1.1.3.2. Ghana

1.1.3.3. Mali

1.1.3.4. Senegal

1.1.3.5. West Africa (Unspecified Country)

1.1.4. Sub-Saharan Africa (Unspecified Country)

1.2. North Africa

1.2.1. Egypt

1.2.2. Morocco

1.2.3. North Africa (Unspecified Country)

1.3. Africa (Unspecified Region)

2. Asia Region

2.1. South Asia

2.1.1. India

2.1.2. Nepal

2.1.3. Thailand

2.2. East Asia

2.2.1. China

2.3. Polynesia

3. Personal Materials



Subject Headings

  • Africa -- Social life and customs.
  • Africa, Central -- Social life and customs.
  • Africa, East -- Social life and customs.
  • Africa, North -- Social life and customs.
  • Africa, Sub-Saharan -- Social life and customs.
  • Africa, West -- Social life and customs.
  • Bira (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) -- Social life and customs.
  • Dodoth (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Ik (African people) -- Material culture.
  • India -- Social life and customs.
  • Kenya -- Social life and customs.
  • Mangbetu (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Mbo (Congolese (Democratic Republic) people) -- Material culture.
  • Mbuti (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Morocco -- Social life and customs.
  • Pende (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Turkana (African people) -- Material culture.
  • Uganda -- Social life and customs.


Detailed Description of the Collection

1. Africa Region, 1951-1989.

1.1. Sub-Saharan Africa

1.1.1. Central Africa

1.1.1.1. Congo (Democratic Republic)

   Museum Item 1989.001.006a

Rectangular gong; two pieces of wood fastened together with a glue-like substance; opening on one side, wood bows out on front and back, and top and bottom edges are jagged; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.006c

Wooden slit gong with design carved on top; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bira people. Initials "KO KO" burned into one side.

   Museum Item 1989.001.007a

Wooden comb with carved pattern on both sides and a hole in the handle; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.009

Braided brown bracelet from Mbo people of Zaire (later, the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

   Museum Item 1989.001.010

Metal kingele pallet bell used by dancers in the nkumbi initiation ritual of the Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.011

Toy garden hoe used by Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012a

Solid metal ring visibly fused together at a point; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people; Circumference.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012b

Metal wire bracelet with four wires connected by two wider twisted wires and with movable circular wires for decoration; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012c

Elephant hair bracelet; four rings with two decorative twisted pieces; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012d

Elephant hair bracelet; three rings connected in middle by twisted pieces and a square piece made of wood or ivory; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012e

Metal bracelet; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012f

Metal bracelet; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.012g

Metal bracelet; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.014a-b

Small coiled basket and lid, tightly woven with a smooth finish; red exterior, gold interior; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.015a

Wooden nuchuba board with four rows of eight large holes; game is played by filling two inside rows of holes with four beans each and successfully moving all beans to the outside rows; origin Tutsi people (Central Africa).

   Museum Item 1989.001.019

Fossilized elephant tooth from Ituri region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.020

Carved ivory ring; origin Ituri, but also found in northern Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.021a

Brass anklet with six cowry shells embedded in clay and a design etched on either side; origin Ituri region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.021b

Brass anklet with five cowry shells embedded in clay (one missing) and a design etched on either side; origin Ituri region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.030

Wooden face mask with red horns, straw beard, holes for the eyes, and white painted designs; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ndaka people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.031

Black pottery pipe bowl, ribbed around top and bottom with diagonal engraving around the center, origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.033a

Domestic knife with decorated wood handle and metal blade, still sharp; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.033b

Domestic knife with decorated wooden handle; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.033c

Domestic knife with wooden handle; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.034a

Bush knife with machete-shaped blade and wooden handle with some decoration; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.034b

Bush knife with machete-shaped blade and wooden handle wrapped in thin strips of metal; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.034c

Bush knife with a wooden handle and no decoration, blade in the shape of a small machete; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

   Museum Item 1989.001.035

Wooden dipping spoon with short handle and wide bowl, contains hole for hanging; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.036

Wooden side-blown trumpet bound with band of crocodile skin, small hole for hanging; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.037a

Wooden pestle in the shape of a two-pronged fork, used by the Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but most likely Nandi in origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.037b

Wooden pestle with flat top, rounded base, and design around the center; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.037c

Wooden pestle with some black stain; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mbo people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f1

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Brown with darker brown geometric designs; orign Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f10

Five pieces of bark cloth stitched together with light brown raffia; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f11

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish brown cloth, various geometric designs; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f12

Red bark cloth that has a pattern similar to the skin of a giraffe; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f13

Small piece of brown bark cloth with painted black squares, red dots, and red and black lines; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f14

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light brown background with dark brown stripes; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f15

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Brown background with black lines, red lines, and black outlines throughout; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the C

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f16

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish brown background, triangles in black plaid, black hooks, and various leaves and stars. One side appears to be unfinish

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f17

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Half of the cloth is spotted and the other half is made of sections of stars divided by lines. Pale brown background and dark

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f18

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light brown background with dark brown design; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f19

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light brown background with black dye, various shapes and two orange lines; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Co

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f2

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Brown with geometric squares; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f20

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish brown background, wavy lines with circles and half circles; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (for

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f21

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light background with red and gray lines; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f22

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Dark brown lines with darker brown dye and geometric patterns painted on lines of various shapes; origin Ituri forest, Democra

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f23

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light background with red dots, gray lines, and triangles with lines; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (f

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f24

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light brown background, half is decorated with brown circles and half with lines and circles; origin Ituri forest, Democratic

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f25

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Tan background with dark brown design; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f26

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Light brown background with red and brown dyed intricate design, geometric shapes, straight lines, and stars; origin Ituri for

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f3

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish brown with faint orange lines, design is made of small rectangles separated by two lines; origin Ituri forest, Democr

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f4

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Brown with spotted design, one small area of geometric designs; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (former

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f5

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Tan in color with random brown stars on one side and brown stars connected by lines on the other side; origin Ituri forest, D

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f6

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Intricate geometric pattern throughout with a random design; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f7

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish orange and brown with intricate geometric patterns on light brown background; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f8

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Reddish brown cloth, various symbols, designs in black and reddish orange; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Con

   Museum Item 1989.001.038f9

A piece of bark cloth, a non-woven textile made by beating the inner bark of certain trees and bushes until it is fine and soft. Three pieces of dark brown cloth stiched together with light brown raffia; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Con

   Museum Item 1989.001.044a

Sixteen-note sound box, also known as board piano or thumb piano and lukembi, likembe, or kalimba; wooden with keys made from spoon handles, bicycle spikes, or metal keys hammered to the desired shape; keys plucked with thumb and fingers; two holes under

   Museum Item 1989.001.044b

Twelve-note sound box, also known as thumb piano, board piano, lukembi, or kalimba; wooden with keys made from spoon handles, bicycle spikes, or metal keys hammered to the desired shape; keys plucked with thumb and fingers; two holes on bottom and one on

   Museum Item 1989.001.044c

Twelve-note sound box, also known as thumb piano, board piano, lukembi, or kalimba; wooden with keys made from spoon handles, bicycle spikes, or metal keys hammered to the desired shape; keys plucked with thumb and fingers; one hole on base and one on bac

   Museum Item 1989.001.044d

Ten-note barrel-shaped sound box, also known as board piano or thumb piano and lukembi, likembe, or kalimba; wooden with keys made from spoon handles, bicycle spikes, or metal keys hammered to the desired shape; keys plucked with thumb and fingers; open a

   Museum Item 1989.001.044e

Ten-note barrel-shaped sound box, also known as board piano or thumb piano and lukembi, likembe, or kalimba; wooden with keys made from spoon handles, bicycle spikes, or metal keys hammered to the desired shape; keys plucked with thumb and fingers; very d

   Museum Item 1989.001.045a

Miniature five-string harp with wooden arm and base; base covered with skin that has been nailed down, arm has leopard type decoration, base has markings, hole cut out on top of base; origin Mangbetu people of the Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.045c

Five string harp with wooden arm and base, skin covering, strings still attached; origin Bira people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.046

Ivory blade with handle of a very well-carved Mangbetu-style woman's head.

   Museum Item 1989.001.047

Ceremonial knife used in a wedding exchange; curved metal blade with three holes, wooden handle with decorative metal wrap near the blade; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Mangbetu people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.048a

Carved wooden figure of an Mbuti of Ituri forest; holes in each hand that are meant to hold spears.

   Museum Item 1989.001.048b

Wooden figure of Mbuti hunter with spear.

   Museum Item 1989.001.048d

Wooden male fetish figure, hands joined together under chin, helmet-like head covering, rectangular box cut into center; origin Epulu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.048e

Wooden Janus-face, both faces rectangular with pronounced nostrils, eyes, and teeth; origin Epulu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.048f

Wooden figure that has both animal and human features, standing on two legs with elongated snout, 6 large teeth, head cover with pieces resembling horns and a protruding piece in the middle; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly

   Museum Item 1989.001.048g

Wooden figure of Mbuti carrying a well-carved hunting net, eyes closed, on an oval base; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.048h

Wooden figure with both animal and human features, bowl-shaped headpiece; wood is soft, appears to be a fetish figure; origin Ndaka people, Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.048i

Wooden figure of a leopard man standing over an initiate of the nkumbi circumcision ritual; larger figure has spotted covering, slits for eyes and openings for arms, textured knee-length pants; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (former

   Museum Item 1989.001.048j

Wooden figure of man lacking torso, hands, and feet, mouth stained red, eyes white; origin Epulu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.048k

Wooden head with both animal and human features; mane, tusks, and nose of an animal, ears, mouth, and eyes of a human; geometric design on base, back is plain, soft wood; origin Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.049a

Dark clay pipe with design engraved around bowl; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Mbuti people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.049b

Clay pipe with long wooden stem; design engraved around bowl, copper coiled around end of stem; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Mbuti people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.050

Bundle of wooden arrows wrapped with a piece of raffia, seven with metal tips, fourteen in all; end of one is notched with traces of poison; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Mbuti people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.051

Ivory hairpin, curved with a pointed tip on one end and the other a carved head of a woman; hair is that of a Mangbetu woman, decoration on torso.

   Museum Item 1989.001.052

One of seventy bamboo pieces that comprise of an Mbata seat; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Ndaka people.

   Museum Item 1989.001.081c

A basket tree stick used as a ritual status symbol, origin Epulu region of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.081e

Ritual staff of office; wood is divided into intricately carved and decorated sections.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091b

Wooden stool used in nkumbi initiation; bottom has three incised marks on each side, handle carved on one side near the center column, and incised area in the middle of the top; origin Bira people of the Epulu region of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091c

Wooden stool used in nkumbi initiation graduation; top is scalloped, base is square, four decorated block shapes between base and top; etched into one side is "H_ _ _ _ _"; origin Epulu region of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091d

Wooden stool used in nkumbi initiation graduation; open square carved through center; origin Mangbetu people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091e

Wooden stool used in nkumbi initiation, scalloped design on top.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091f

Wooden stool used in nkumbi initiation, star-shaped base; origin Epulu region of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091g

Wooden nkumbi household stool used in initiation with two pieces of wood lying on top; four legs, darker in color, curve upward, 3 holes in each side on the darker band of color; one piece of wood is inscribed "Innsbruck Sept 27 1953"; origin Bira people

   Museum Item 1989.001.091h

Wooden stool supported by four nearly identical carved figures with red mouths; three figures hold the seat of the stool with extended arms; geometric design at base and top; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104e

Women's domestic knife with wooden handle and metal, diamond-shaped blade; some type of coating on blade; origin Mbuti people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104f

Knife with metal blade and wooden handle; metal strips wrap around upper portion of handle; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104g

Man's knife with metal blade in a two-sectioned wooden sheath which is wrapped in some areas with metal lacing; wooden carved handle; appears to be carved from the same piece of wood; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104h

Knife with bone handle and metal blade; origin Ituri rainforest, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.104i

Women's domestic knife; metal spiraled around wooden handle; metal blade is machete-shaped; origin Mbo people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104j

Women's domestic knife with wooden handle; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.107c

Gourd bowl for palm wine; a braided leather handle is connected through two holes; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.110b

Market carrying basket with two handles; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.110c

Market carrying basket with two handles; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.115a

Wooden dog bell with wooden clapper, cord, and leather strap; bell has pattern on one side; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.115b

Dog bell made with two wooden clappers; piece of twine strung through two holes at top; plain back; origin Mbuti people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.116a1-2

Stick that is cleft on one end with an orange string wrapped around cleft; reed whistle loosely attached to the other end.

   Museum Item 1989.001.116b

Whistle made of wood with a metal ring on one end and wax or gum stuck to the outside of the wood; appears to be in the shape of an animal on one end.

   Museum Item 1989.001.116c

Wooden hunting whistle bound with twine; origin Mbuti people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.117a

Antelope horn, used for holding medicine; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.117b

Antelope horn, use unknown; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.118a

Circular winnowing basket with one wrapped piece for carrying or hanging; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.118b

Circular winnowing basket; tightly woven, wrapped loop attached to rim and below rim is one solid piece of bamboo for stability; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.118c

Winnowing basket; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.119a

Base of a fire stick with four holes in it, broken at one end; origin Mbo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.119b

Vertical fire stick with one end carved; bark is shaved off; origin Ituri rainforest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.119c

Wooden stick with one end carved in a circular design; part of a fire stick, very smooth; origin Ituri rainforest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.120a

Wooden mortar with alternating light and dark carved designs, rough base; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.120b

Mortar of light and dark brown wood; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.120c

Mortar with handle which extends in one piece from rim to base; top rim decorated with spaced parallel lines, side of rim has cut-outs; base is scalloped; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.120d

Mortar with a wide mouth; origin Ndaka people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.122b

Pair of circular seed castanets connected by material; origin Epulu region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.124a

Ivory head used in Pende boys' initiation; two holes in each to attach to a string; they were worn as arm decorations; white ivory head.

   Museum Item 1989.001.124b

Ivory head used in Pende boys' initiation; two holes in each to attach to a string; they were worn as arm decorations.

   Museum Item 1989.001.124c

Ivory head used in Pende boys' initiation; two holes in each to attach to a string; they were worn as arm decorations.

   Museum Item 1989.001.124d

Ivory head used in Pende boys' initiation; two holes in each to attach to a string; they were worn as arm decorations.

   Museum Item 1989.001.124e

Ivory head used in Pende boys' initiation; two holes in each to attach to a string; they were worn as arm decorations; dark ivory head.

   Museum Item 1989.001.126a-b

Two bullet-shaped ivory buttons with carved faces; four holes in each to attach to garment; origin Kasai region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.126c-f

Four bullet-shaped wooden buttons with carved faces; four holes in each to attach to garment; origin Kasai region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.130b

Neck of a pottery jug with a spout, intricate design; origin Ituri rainforest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.132a

Wooden face decorated with white paint, straw beard, nose holes; face has white dots, outlined nose and lips; carved crown decorated with white strips; string attached through holes in the back; origin Ndaka people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.132b

Wooden face decorated with white paint, straw beard, nose holes; face has white dots, outlined nose and lips with lines in the forehead area; string attached through holes in the back; origin Ndaka people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.132c

Wooden face mask decorated with white, blue, and red paint; mouth carved in an oval, eyes have triangular lids with blue dots, chin has blue dots, cheeks have red and white dots, forehead has blue dots and white V-lines, straw beard; string attached to tw

   Museum Item 1989.001.132d

Wooden face mask decorated with white paint and straw beard; chin and cheeks have cobweb design, eyes are small triangles, elongated nose, forehead has horizontal dashes, headpiece has vertical white lines; broken string attached to one nail, straw attach

   Museum Item 1989.001.132e

Wooden initation doctor's mask with beard; ears, eyes, nose, and mouth all have holes; eyebrows carved down to the mouth in a series of reverse S's creating cheek bones; touched the nose is a carved vertical band; ears protude inward to eyes; faded white

   Museum Item 1989.001.133a

Red ivory trumpet with a carved human form; used by the Mbo and Ndaka people in the initiation of the Mbuti people; origin central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.133b

Red ivory trumpet with a carved bird and snake, some kind of skin around larger opening; origin Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.134a-b

Arrows with metal points and wooden shafts used for hunting large game; origin Mbuti people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.135a

Skin carrying bag designed like a large pocket book, made to be worn through the arms on a back, straps crisscross on back; origin Mbuti people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.137

Wooden imitation toy shield with rings painted on front and back; carved with handle on back; handle and piece on front painted black; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.138a-c

Wooden bowl with two lids; design carved around outside of bow, which is on a pedestal base; both lids have intricate designs with carved knobs on the top; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.140

One-string fiddle with skin head which is nailed to a painted wooden base; open bottom, red and black geometric design around base, string still attached; origin Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155a

Wooden bow without a string but notched at ends, some skin wrapped around each end; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155b

Wooden bow without a string but notched at ends, some skin with fur wrapped around each end; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155d

Wooden bow without a string, some skin with fur wrapped around each end; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155i

Spare bow string, possible origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.156

Metal wedding exchange object that looks like an anchor; string tied at neck; origin Kwele people of Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.157a

Zither with no strings, nine holes, and nine separate rectangular protrusions on each end; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.157c

Notched flute made of wood with three finger holes; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.157d

One-string stick fiddle (goge); a string passes over a small bridge placed close to the edge of the gourd, which rotates; ornately carved handle, origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.158a

Hunting spear with wooden handle and metal blade, handle is pointed at base, blade is rusty; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.158b

Hunting spear with wooden handle, metal blade with intricate shape, and cord wrapped around the handle attaching the blade; origin Bira people of the Ituri rainforest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.158c

Elephant hunting spear with wooden handle, metal blade, and cord wrapped around the handle attaching the blade; thought to be made by villagers and used by the Mbuti of the Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.159

Executioning sword with metal blade and wooden handle; decorative cord in several colors wraps around handle, pieces of red hair are attached through holes in the handle; origin Bira people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.162b

Raffia mat with tiger, painted in orange, brown, and green; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.162c

Purple and tan plaid raffia mat with a green border; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163a

Ivory drummer with elongated head; hair, drum, and base are etched; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163b

Ivory model of an Mbuti hunter, holes in each hand for two spears, holes for eyes, carved hair and garment; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163bb

Ivory elephant, origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163c

Ivory figure of a man in bark cloth; he appears to be holding something in his right hand; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163cc

Ivory elephant with holes for eyes, origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163d

Ivory figure of a woman wearing a skirt.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163dd

Ivory elephant with holes for eyes; tusks broken; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ee

Ivory crocodile eating an antelope; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163e-h

Four ivory candlesticks, made for hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ff

Ivory crocodile with carved teeth; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163gg

Ivory lion; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163hh

Ornamental face mask with elongated nose, carved headpiece, closed eyes, and a string through the holes at top; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163i

Stone candlestick made for hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ii

Ornamental face mask with carved headpiece, closed eyes, and a string through the holes at top; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163jj

Ornamental face mask with open eyes, carved hair, and a string through the holes at top; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163j-k

Ivory replicas of European knives; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163kk

Ornamental face mask with open eyes, carved hair, and a string through the holes at top; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163l

Ivory salt spoon, made for hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ll

Smoked ivory ornamental face mask, mouth has five carved pointed teeth; origin Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), but is a replica of masks created by the Dan people of Cote d'Ivoire.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163m

Ivory knife rest with an elephant design, made for hotel use; origin Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163mm

Smoked ivory ornamental face mask, mouth is wide oval, eyes are a rectangle; origin Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), but is a replica of masks created by the Dan people of Cote d'Ivoire.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163n

Ivory tooth or tusk carved into an ornate ring with a circle and dot motif; resembles a napkin ring; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163nn

Smoked ivory ornamental face mask, openings for eyes, mouth has slight opening, showing teeth, crown on head; origin Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), but is a replica of masks created by the Pende people (also of DRC).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163o

Ivory toothpick holder with 10 ivory toothpicks, made for hotels, carved design on toothpicks; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163oo

Ivory replica of a snail shell, seven holes indicate that it may have come unglued from another piece; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163p

Ivory toothpick holder with 10 ivory toothpicks, made for hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163pp

Plastic mechanical "bobblehead" dog, tail and head move, made for hotel use; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163qq

Ivory flower vase with human face on one side and lion on the other, made for hotel use; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163q-s

Ivory figures depicting the Three Wise Monkeys motif ("See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil"); origin Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163rr

Ivory flower vase with human head, very stylized hair, made for hotel use; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ss

Ivory stylized Mangbetu head, poised upwards; origin Mangbetu people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163t

Ivory replica of a European shoehorn; profile of a woman with sculptured hair, black holes for eyes; torso resembles woman wearing a dress in the shape of a shoehorn; origin Mangbetu people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163tt

Ivory human head; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163uu

Ivory menu holder made for use in hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163vv

Ivory menu holder, flying bird design, made for use in hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ww

Ivory menu holder, flying bird design, made for use in hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163xx

Ivory table ornament in two pieces, flying bird design, made for use in hotels; origin eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

   Museum Item 1989.001.163yy

Very decorative carved elephant tusk with interconnected human and animal motifs, lions, elephant, alligator, antelope, and human; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163zz

Very decorative carved elephant tusk with interconnected human and animal motifs, lions, elephant, alligator, antelope, and human; origin Ituri forest.

   Museum Item 1989.001.165a

Woven raffia mat with repeating pattern, origin Ituri forest; photograph contains a close-up portion of the mat.

   Museum Item 1989.001.165b

Woven raffia mat with repeating pattern, origin Ituri forest; photograph contains a close-up portion of the mat.

   Museum Item 1989.001.165c

Woven raffia mat with repeating pattern, origin Ituri forest; photograph contains a close-up portion of the mat.

   Museum Item 1989.001.165d

Woven raffia mat with repeating pattern, origin Ituri forest; photograph contains a close-up portion of the mat.

   Museum Item 1989.001.182

Painting of the Ituri rainforest, home of the Mbuti people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), by Anne Eisner Putnam. Heavy oil palette and brush, acrylic possibly used; signed "Anne Eisner", lower right.

1.1.1.2. Central Africa (Unspecified Country)

   Museum Item 1989.001.015a

Tin of 82 beans used to play nuchuba; tin reads "PLAYER NO.3 EXTRA QUALITY"; origin Tutsi people (Central Africa).

   Museum Item 1989.001.016

Zande rubbing article, functions as an oracle.

   Museum Item 1989.001.045d

Five string harp with metal strings, wooden arm, and turtle-shell base; origin Ndaka people of Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155c

Wooden bow without a string but notched at ends, wood is split; origin Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155e

Wooden bow without a string but notched at ends; origin Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155f

Wooden bow with skin at the ends; origin Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155g

Smooth wooden bow with string; origin Central Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.155h

Wooden bow with string; bow in natural state; origin Central Africa.

1.1.2. East Africa

1.1.2.1. Ethiopia

   Museum Item 1989.001.128

Silver Coptic cross with looped copper piece soddered on; origin Ethiopia.

   Museum Item 1989.001.170

Brass menorah, possible origin Ethiopia.

1.1.2.2. Kenya

   Museum Item 1989.001.022c

Wooden container with lid; plant design burned into wood, origin Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.022d

Wooden container with lid and two handles; lid has star and heart design, body has two leopards, origin Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.028a

Two shallow heart-shaped soapstone ashtrays with flat bases and nearly identical sizes.

   Museum Item 1989.001.039a

Soapstone vessel in the shape of a small vase with wide mouth and narrow neck, origin West Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.039b

Soapstone pear-shaped head with accented nose and lips, made for tourists, origin west Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.039c

Soapstone pear-shaped head with accented nose and lips, made for tourists, origin west Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.040a

Carved wooden head of a cattle herder, made for tourists, origin west Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.040b

Carved wooden head of a cattle herder, made for tourists, origin west Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.048c

Carving of a human and an animal; the shapes are intertwined and a human face is part of the animal figure; origin South Kenya; engraved lettering on front reads "MR KASUMILI IOMASIL FROM_MbEGAM LD bAGAMOYO MAKOMDE."

   Museum Item 1989.001.081a

Ritual fly wrist used by doctors; long wooden handle with some type of hair attached; purchased from Turkana (Kenya).

   Museum Item 1989.001.098b

Wooden neckrest/headrest with two holes that would have had a chain or cord through them; wood is stained; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.098d

Wooden neckrest/headrest with wooden charm attached to a woven vine; vine is attached to central vertical piece with two holes; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.098e

Wooden neckrest/headrest with vine cord attached to two holes in the vertical piece of the object; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.099a

Bark snuff holder; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.099b

Bark snuff holder; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.099c

Wooden snuff holder with metal chain attached by wire and metal strip around the narrow opening; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.101a

Part of a necklace with green, red, white, and brown beads, the brown beads irregularly shaped; strung on a string that has unraveled at the end; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.102a

Wooden bowl (atubwa); origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.102b

Wooden bowl (atubwa) with two pieces of metal-like staples on one side; bowl is oval in shape, rounded on the bottom; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104a

Small knife with wooden handle wrapped in a metal strip; hide sheath decorated with a strip of wood wrapped with thick thread; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104b

Ebony paper knife with an elephant carved on the handle, large notch carved just below elephant; origin West Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104c

Circular knife, believed to be worn on a wrist; blade edge is covered, ends of cover have copper fittings, interior opening has cover with wire decoration; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.104d

Decorative knife with metal blade and wooden handle with metal dots at top and base; sheath with a wrist thong made of some sort of hide; metal wire wrapped around tip of sheath; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.107a

Gourd vessel with a hide cover over its mouth; decorated strip of hide with green, red, and blue beads and seven cowry shells attached to side; string of white, orange, and blue beads attach the cover to the strip of hide; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.108

Ebony dish; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.135b

Skin key patch made for sale by inmates of Nairobi prison; brown fur on one side, metal loop and snap for closures.

   Museum Item 1989.001.141c

Wood carving that was used as a candle-holder; birds and crocodiles carved around the stand; remnants of the candle remain; origin south Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.144a

Rectangular shaped stirring implement, dark wood; origin Turkana people of Kenya or Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.144c

Wooden stirring ladle, dark wood, roughly done, with split in wood; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.146a

Wooden stirring ladle, very primitive in design, ladle turns upward; origin Kenya or Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.146b

Wooden stirring ladle, very ornate design, dark wood; origin Kenya or Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.158d

Hunting spear for protection against lions; metal handle and blade with four holes, blade and handle attached by a piece of wood, metal wiring wrapped around sections of the handle; origin Nandi people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.160

Wooden bowl (atubwa); origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.164

Coiled basked with lid; has beaded cover of blue, yellow, green, red, and white beads in diamond designs, beaded knob on top, tightly woven; resembles sweetgrass baskets of the South Carolina lowcountry; origin Luo people of Kenya.

1.1.2.3. Rwanda

   Museum Item 1989.001.105c

Deep coiled basket with alternating black and brown pattern; origin Rwanda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.006b

Wooden slit gong with two handles carved on each side, one with metal and straw wrapped around it; metal strip and random nails nailed onto one side; origin Rwanda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.006d1-2

Two wooden drum sticks with resin heads for use with slit gongs; origin Rwanda.

1.1.2.4. Tanzania

   Museum Item 1989.001.176a1-2

Wooden chief's chair in two parts; the rectangular end of the seat fits through a slot in the back; back carved with two flowers on top and bottom, an elephant, a giraffe, and diamond motif around the border; teeth-like carving on the bottom helps secure the seat to the ground; possible origin Tanzania.

   Museum Item 1989.001.176b1-2

Wooden chief's chair in two parts; the rectangular end of the seat fits through a slot in the back; back has carved flowers on a vine, a giraffe, and diamond motif around the border; teeth-like carving on the bottom helps secure the seat to the ground; possible origin Tanzania.

   Museum Item 1989.001.176c1-2

Wooden chief's chair in two parts; the rectangular end of the seat fits through a slot in the back; back has a carved animal, a man smoking a pipe, a symbol with a leaf, and diamond motif around the border; teeth-like carving on the bottom helps secure the seat to the ground; possible origin Tanzania.

   Museum Item 1989.001.176d1-2

Wooden chief's chair in two parts; the rectangular end of the seat fits through a slot in the back; back has a carved boar, two men carrying an animal on a pole, a carved knife, and diamond motif around the border; teeth-like carving on the bottom helps secure the seat to the ground; possible origin Tanzania.

1.1.2.5. Uganda

   Museum Item 1989.001.032a

Wooden camel with blanket carved on top of hump, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032b

Black wooden crocodile; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032c

Black wooden antelope; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032d

Brown wooden hippopotamus with open mouth and turned head, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032e

Wooden zebra with painted black stripes, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032f

Brown wooden lion with open mouth, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032g

Black wooden buffalo, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032h

Wooden giraffe with painted black spots and head facing backwards; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032i

Black wooden boar, tail pointed upward and head turned as if ready to charge, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032j

Brown wooden boar, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032k

Black wooden buffalo, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032l

Wooden rhinoceros, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032m

Black and brown water buffalo, head turned, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032n

Wooden leopard with painted spots, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.032o

Wooden rhinoceros with a long horn, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.041a

Carved wooden head made for tourists, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.041b

Carved wooden head made for tourists, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.042

Wooden figure with tether headdress of wire and a shield, made for tourists, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.045b

Five string harp with a wooden body, animal skin across top, cord strings; very decorated with geometric pattern wood-burned into body, arm has giraffe-like spots; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.087

Orange and natural colored woven round, flat straw object resembling a trivet; no decoration on bottom; possible origin Uganda (weaving pattern resembles objects from Uganda).

   Museum Item 1989.001.092

Small wooden pot, crudely done; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.093a

End of a pottery tuyere used in a kiln; a tuyere is a tube through which air or oxygen is blown into a blast furnace, a ceramic blow tube to keep the furnace hot; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.093b

Bellows used with tuyere and kiln; top skin and stick are missing; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.094a

Yellow, violet, and natural coiled raffia basket with two handles; tray-shaped, repetitive geometric decorations in natural raffia within violet bands, edge is three rows of tightly woven material with handles on either side, plain underside; origin Ugand

   Museum Item 1989.001.094b

Yellow, violet, and natural coiled raffia basket; repetitive geometric decorations in natural raffia within violet bands, edge is three rows of tightly woven material, plain underside; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.094c

Yellow, violet, and natural coiled raffia basket; repetitive geometric decorations in natural raffia within violet bands, edge is three rows of tightly woven material, plain underside; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.095a-b

Decorated wooden bowl with a lid on top of a stem; container is stained dark brown with two areas of a lighter brown color; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.096

Stylized female figure holding a pot on her head, supported on her knees; carved of one piece of wood; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.097

Ebony ashtray that is a cross-section of a tree trunk; three grooves for cigarettes, etc., center is circular with grooves; inscribed on bottom: AS_H _GATHON"; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.098a

Wooden neckrest/headrest with a metal chain around it; metal coin with a hole is looped into chain; inscribed upon coin is "GEORGIUS SEXTUS REX ONE CENT"; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.098c

Wooden neckrest/headrest with a cord looped around the middle; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.100

Stopper for a jug made of some type of cone or hive on a chain; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.101b

Necklace made of metal beads on a leather strap; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103a

Wooden spoon; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103b

Small wooden spoon with straight handle; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103c

Light brown wooden spoon with straight handle; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103d

Ladle-shaped wooden spoon with straight handle; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103e

Roughly done, straight handled wooden spoon; end of handle carved but not smooth; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103f

Wooden spoon with straight handle; dark wood, bowl shows use.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103g

Wooden spoon with straight handle; handle has decorative shape; wood is light; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103h

Wooden spoon, roughly done, some variation in wood stain; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103i

Wooden spoon with straight handle, light wood; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103j

Wooden spoon with straight handle; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103k

Wooden spoon decorated with small silver nails; origin Turkana people of Kenya.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103l

Wooden spoon, lighter stain on front of handle, dark stain on bowl and back; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103m

Ladle-shaped wooden spoon, mixed dark and light wood tones; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103n

Straight-handled dark wooden spoon; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103o

Straight-handled dark wooden spoon; circle of irregular nature in bowl; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103p

Ladle-shaped light wooden spoon; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103q

Straight-handled dark wooden spoon with some variation in color; carving somewhat rough, handle thick; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103r

Straight-handled wooden spoon; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.103s

Wooden spoon with dark and light wood tones; possible origin is Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.106a

Wooden stool with three uneven legs a sloping seat; appears to have been made from one trunk and branches; roughly made, several cracks, seat has small V-shaped section missing; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.106b

Wooden three-legged stool that appears to have been carved from one tree; footings in the shape of feet; origin Karamoja province of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.106c

Wooden three-legged stool that appears to have been carved from one tree; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109a

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109b

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109c

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109d

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109e

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.109f

Round hide table mat with blue and beige stitching around the edge and four clover/leaf designs in black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.110a

Straw basket thought to have carried vegetables; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.111

Ostrich egg shell for storing and drinking water; "Happy Easter Josephine" is inscribed along with two hearts, most likely an Easter gift from Colin Turnbull to Joseph Towles during their time studying the Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.127

Gourd drinking vessel, orange in color with narrow neck and darker areas; origin Karamoja region of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142a

Bark picture with wood backing; tall woman with child carrying a basket on her head, man with a spear, and two huts; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142b

Bark picture with wood backing; man canoeing with two huts and two palm trees; inscribed on back: 1970 MR. PHEN Phenehas S. Sali; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142c

Bark picture on wood backing; village with two women in the forefront, mountains in the background, framed in bark; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142d

Bark picture on wood backing; antelope in a clearing by a lake, outlined in bark; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142e

Bark picture on wood backing; three birds in front of water with two palm trees; inscribed on back: 1970 MR. PHENEHAS SSALI; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142f

Bark picture on wood backing; man in a canoe near by a palm tree, two huts and a tree in background; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.142g

Bark picture on wood backing; man with spear, woman with basket on head, and figure under a tree; large hut in foreground, two in background, large palm tree on righthand side of picture; framed with wire on back for hanging; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143a

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143b

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143c

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143d

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143e

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143f

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143g

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143h

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143i

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143j

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143k

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143l

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143m

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143n

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.143o

Unused wooden ladle, origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.144a

Rectangular shaped stirring implement, dark wood; origin Turkana people of Kenya or Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.145a

Wooden fork, dark wood; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.145b

Wooden fork, dark wood; origin Dodoth people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.146a

Wooden stirring ladle, very primitive in design, ladle turns upward; origin Kenya or Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.146b

Wooden stirring ladle, very ornate design, dark wood; origin Kenya or Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154a

Walking stick that is straight, as opposed to cane-shaped; top shaped like a knob, wood two-toned; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154b

Walking stick that is straight, as opposed to cane-shaped; top is narrow, wood two-toned; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154c

Cane-shaped wooden walking stick that is broken; two-toned wood, four metal bands randomly placed; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154d

Wooden cane-shaped walking stick; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154d

Wooden cane-shaped walking stick; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.157b

Wooden drum with two small handles, two heads made of hide, and a leather cord connecting the two hides; origin Ganda people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.157e

Lizard-skin lyre with vine strings and wooden arm; outside decorated with animal skin and wooden cords; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.162a1

Raffia mat with fuschia border and peacock in green, fuschia, yellow, and black; origin Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.165e

Peacock raffia mat painted green, black, red, pink, and light green with green border; origin Uganda.

1.1.2.6. East Africa (Unspecified Country)

   Museum Item 1989.001.017

Small wooden object, origin Tutsi people. Collector Colin Turnbull labeled the object "a parihuana holder."

   Museum Item 1989.001.023

Porcupine quill, multicolored black/ivory; origin East Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.039d

Black soapstone bowl; plain except for one decoration around rim; origin East Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.091a

Wooden, three-legged stool that appears to have been carved from one piece of wood; origin Ik people of Uganda.

   Museum Item 1989.001.105a

Conical coiled grass basket with green spiral decoration of died raffia; base flares outward for two rows that were added on; origin East Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.105b

Conical coiled grass basket with violet, blue, and green spiral decoration of died raffia; origin East Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.107b

Decorated gourd bowl; origin East Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.154d

East-African imitation of a European walking stick; cane-shaped with metal tip, metal band with markings; cane is notched; origin East Africa.

1.1.3. West Africa

1.1.3.1. Côte d'Ivoire

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ll

Smoked ivory ornamental face mask, mouth has five carved pointed teeth; origin Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), but is a replica of masks created by the Dan people of Cote d'Ivoire.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163mm

Smoked ivory ornamental face mask, mouth is wide oval, eyes are a rectangle; origin Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), but is a replica of masks created by the Dan people of Cote d'Ivoire.

1.1.3.2. Ghana

   Museum Item 1989.001.125a

Brass goldweight; figure of a man smoking a pipe and carrying a jug on his head; origin Ashanti people of Ghana.

   Museum Item 1989.001.125b

Brass goldweight with a series of triangles cut into top of weight; origin Ashanti people of Ghana.

   Museum Item 1989.001.168

A black wooden fertility doll carried by expectant mothers; origin Ashanti people of Ghana.

1.1.3.3. Mali

   Museum Item 1989.001.024

Metal Tuareg shawl pin with intricate design on face and blank back; origin Mali.

1.1.3.4. Senegal

   Museum Item 1989.001.131

Cowrie shell necklace, made with brown seeds, green beads, and white shells; main piece in the shape of a triangle with 28 shells; origin Wolof people of Senegal.

1.1.3.5. West Africa (Unspecified Country)

   Museum Item 1989.001.043

Red, black, and greenish-brown stone ashtray, made for tourists, origin West Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.123a

Small wooden fetish figure; origin West Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.123b

Well-carved small human fetish figure of a female; unusual triangular headpiece extends suspended above the head.

1.1.4. Sub-Saharan Africa (Unspecified Country)

   Museum Item 1989.001.001

Ebony elephant with white wooden tusks, eyes, and toes; possible origin is South Eastern Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.003

Ebony elephant with white wooden tusks and eyes; possible origin is South Eastern Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.002

Ebony elephant with white wooden tusks and eyes; possible origin is South Eastern Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.004

Ebony elephant with white wooden tusks and eyes; possible origin is South Eastern Africa.

1.2. North Africa

1.2.1. Egypt

   Museum Item 1989.001.122a

A sistrum, rattle-like musical instrument that was sacred in ancient Egypt; rectangular metal object that has pointed forged end; 15 holes with 15 metal rings line the edges; origin Egypt.

   Museum Item 1989.001.130a

Fragment of a pottery bowl, origin Egypt.

1.2.2. Morocco

   Museum Item 1989.001.027

Small wooden object, intricately done with a loose wooden ring; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.075

Copper kettle with brass parts on lid and handle; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.076

Brass pail with handles on each side; origin Berber people of Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.077a

Copper bowl with Acanthus leaf motif; on a stem with stamp on bottom: 1891800; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.077b

Copper pail with handle and geometric design engraved around top; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.078a

Copper and brass kettle with intricately engraved design on lid, top, and sides; knob of lid, ornate handle, and spout brass; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.078b1-2

Brass kettle with handle, damaged base; mark on base: "Marque de Pose"; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.079a-b

Brass teapot with handle; design engraved on lid and around belly of pot; rectangular base with four feet and carved designs; with brass tray that has engraved design; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.147

Slave shackles, most likely wrist or ankle, with original key; one circular ring, four oval links.

   Museum Item 1989.001.148

Rock from the Atlas Mountains, Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.149a

Brass bowl with intricate design engraved around sides; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.149b

Round brass bowl with design engraved around sides.

   Museum Item 1989.001.149c

Circular brass soap dish that accompanies a brass bucket (1989.001.076) and has a design engraved on it; several holes on the tray and a raised bowl without decoration; origin Berber people of Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.149d

Brass tray, design engraved on top; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.150

Dagger with metal blade and wood handle that is decorated on the end in decorated metal sheath that has two rings with a red and blue rope attached to the rings; sheath turns up at the end; origin Morocco.

   Museum Item 1989.001.151

Circular charm with a thin piece of metal soddered to the back to be worn as a charm on a necklace; six-pointed star with a hole in the middle engraved on front; shaped like a gong with a loose part inside that makes noise; back is plain; origin Tuareg or

   Museum Item 1989.001.153

Round piece of metal, probably brass, thought to be part of a brass kettle; origin Morocco.

1.2.3. North Africa (Unspecified Country)

   Museum Item 1989.001.063

Polished wooden head of a woman with turban-type head cover, dark stain, wood may be mahogany, origin North Africa.

   Museum Item 1989.001.129

Metal ashtray in the shape of a goblet; gold leaf design stenciled around the upper edge; origin North Africa.

1.3. Africa (Unspecified Region)

   Museum Item 1989.001.006d3

Drumstick made of a bare bone; for use with slit gong.

   Museum Item 1989.001.006d4

Bone drumstick with leather stitched over joint end; for use with slit gong.

   Museum Item 1989.001.008a

Small ritual metal staff with two prongs, a twisted neck, and a pointed end on the handle.

   Museum Item 1989.001.008b

Double-headed metal staff with a long wooden handle; has the appearance of an animal with a beak and a long tail.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013a

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013b

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013c

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013d

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013e

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013f

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013g

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.013h

Circular iron anklet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.025a

Small wooden spear shaft etched on all sides, made for a male figurine.

   Museum Item 1989.001.025b

   Museum Item 1989.001.026

Water bowl that appears to be made from a seed pod; dark brown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.037d

Wooden pestle; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.048l

Highly stylized wooden elephant with large, round body, short limbs, one tusk, trunk down.

   Museum Item 1989.001.081b

Twisted wooden stick considered ritually powerful because of charm.

   Museum Item 1989.001.081d

Intricately woven basket tree stick used as a ritual symbol.

   Museum Item 1989.001.081f

Wooden stick carved at ends.

   Museum Item 1989.001.083

Wooden mask with carved mouth and nose and holes for eyes; holes carved on cheeks, nose, forehead, and perimeter of face and inserted into holes are orange and red beads; beard of beads also attached; handles carved into back to hold the mask; origin is A

   Museum Item 1989.001.084a

Pottery pot with a narrow neck, shallow grooves decorate front and back, sides decorated with scalloped-type pieces that were added on, reddish-brown in color; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.084b

Wooden container or pot that appears to be a mortar; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.085

Metal blade, crudely finished; S-shaped curved design with a pointed finish, possibly to stick into the ground; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.086a-b

Straw basket in two pieces connected by a rope, decorated in light and dark bands; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.088

Piece of a pipe, appears to be the stem, with detailing; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.089

Long metal object, pointed at the end of an elongated cone shape; unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.136

Braided belt, possibly of vine.

   Museum Item 1989.001.141a

Wood carving of a pregnant woman with bulging eyes, hand in mouth, and feet directed sideways, on a stand; shoulders have two lines incised as some type of decoration.

   Museum Item 1989.001.141b

Wood carving of a female figure with bulging stomach, long toes, pointed large ears, goatee, raised left leg, and large teeth.

   Museum Item 1989.001.141d

Wood carving of an intertwined, elongated human with two faces and bulging eyes.

   Museum Item 1989.001.141e

Wood carving of an elephant with two circles for eyes; top and ear flattened; three long feet intertwined around carving.

   Museum Item 1989.001.144b

Wooden stirrer, light wood.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163aa

Small ivory tusk, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163aaa

Ivory tusk supposedly carried by Tippu Tip's slaves from the interior of Africa to the east coast.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163bbb

Ivory tusk supposedly carried by Tippu Tip's slaves from the interior of Africa to the east coast.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163ccc

Ivory tusk supposedly carried by Tippu Tip's slaves from the interior of Africa to the east coast.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163u

Animal tooth, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163v

Animal tooth, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163w

Curved boar tusk, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163x

Curved tusk, possibly from a boar, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163y

Curved boar tusk, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.163z

Curved boar tusk, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166a

Framed batik depicting three women and one man, each carrying goods; neutral background, wood frame; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166aa

Framed acrylic painting of two men in white robes following a path in a forest; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166b

Framed batik depicting two giraffes and one zebra; neutral background, wood frame; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166bb

Framed oil painting depicting a village scene with three grass-covered dwellings, three seated women, and one woman with a child on her back, several trees; signed "Kioswa" bottom right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166c

Circular oil painting of a village near water; artist's name, "Livingstone" signed on lower left; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166cc

Framed oil painting depicting three men in a conoe, two people swimming, two people bathing, and two men in the foreground, one with a walking stick and one seated; origin unknown; signed "Kioswa" lower right.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166d

Framed watercolor of two men hunting; three animals in the forefront, one of which appears to be wounded; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166e

Framed watercolor of two men fishing; one fish has been caught, another swimming, animal in forefront, illegible signature on bottom; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166f

Framed watercolor of three men in a boat, one boat with supplies, and a tree; illegible signature on bottom; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166g

Unframed batik depicting a warrior with spear and shield; background is gold, figure is purple; signed "J.OLIMBA KAMPALA 72"; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166h

Unframed batik depicting a purple woman standing among purple animals; background is gold; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166i

Unframed batik depicting two Africans in ceremonial garments, each wearing white necklaces; signed "KNASSWA 71"; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166k

Framed pen/ink and watercolor image depicting a bridge with houses and mountains in the background; signed "HM" in lower right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166l

Framed village scene near the water; painting detached from frame; signed "swa" in lower left; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166m

Framed acrylic painting depicting three airplanes attacking a village; signed "DZibA" lower right corner; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166n

Framed acrylic painting of a waterfall; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166o

Framed acrylic painting of a pink house, barnyard with animals, and hanging laundry; signed "DzibA C. Rour" lower left; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166p

Framed acrylic painting depicting a scene of modern and primitive dwellings being attacked by airplanes and tanks; villagers have guns, bows and arrows, and spears, and are wearing native garments; signed "DzibA C" lower right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166q

Framed acrylic painting depicting two men with a sailboat at night; signed "JAK KATAR_ _" lower left corner (last letters illegible); origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166r

Framed acrylic painting depicting a river with a forested area; "SED" inscribed, lower right corner; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166t

Framed acrylic painting depicting two people near a river within a forest; signed "JEFF" lower right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166u

Framed acrylic depicting a woman in a village setting with five huts; signed "HELALiA" lower left; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166v

Framed acrylic painting depicting an African man's face; he is wearing a head covering; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166w

Framed acrylic painting depicting birds flying over a river with mountains and streams in the background; signed "Pp" lower right; origin unknown; unframed dimensions.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166x

Framed acrylic painting depicting a village by a river in a forest setting; signed "NeTUAHO" lower right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166y

Framed acrylic painting depicting five people in a village setting of four structures within a lush forest; signed "NeTUAHO" lower right; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166z

Framed acrylic painting depicting two men in a village setting with three goats in the foreground; signed "PP" lower left; origin unknown.


2. Asia Region, 1949-1992.

2.1. South Asia

2.1.1. India

   Museum Item 1989.001.053a

Purple, yellow, and green raffia handbag with red stitches; material sewn inside, outside decorated with flowers; two braided raffia handles; origin South India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.053b

Natural-colored raffia bag with green material sewn inside; decorated with groups of three shells in floral-type arrangement, coral and green connect shells; origin South India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.054

Snake charmer's pipe made of two pieces of bamboo sealed together with seven holes, placed inside a gourd; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.055

Pottery pipe bowl, origin India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.056

Pair of small brass peacock feather tops for holy oil, some red in decoration; origin India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.057

Charm, coiled in the shape and design of a snake; used by snake charmers to deflate head of cobra; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.058a

Brass statue of Krishna on a square base; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.058b

Carved likeness of Krishna on a wood base, plain back; origin Tamil Nadu.

   Museum Item 1989.001.058c

Brass statue of Krishna crawling as a child; face and head piece highly stylized.

   Museum Item 1989.001.059a

Pair of sistra; wooden instrument with metal cymbals and a carved animal head on each end; origin Tamil Nadu.

   Museum Item 1989.001.059b

Pair of sistra; wooden instrument with metal cymbals and a carved animal head on each end; origin Tamil Nadu.

   Museum Item 1989.001.059c

Brass temple cymbals attached by a string; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.060a

Brass donkey bell on multicolored beaded necklace; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.060b

Miniature brass bell for a domestic shrine used during Puja; origin India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.061a

Brass water bowl, origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.061b

Brass bowl with lid for carrying holy water; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.061c

Metal container for sprinkling rose water; intricate design in black, yellow, and red engravings; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.061d

Container to hold water or oil, handle has snake at top near the opening, intricate design; origin India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.062a

Wooden statue of Radha in costume, well-carved, back is plain except for hair; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.062b

Brass statue of Radha, origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.064

Wooden religious artifact; origin Tamil Nadu, India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.065a

Siva Lingam; stone article used for worship in a domestic shrine; origin South India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.065b

Miniature Siva Lingam; stone article used for worship in a domestic shrine; origin Varanasi (Benares), India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.066a

Well-carved stone sculpture of an animal with four horns, used in a domestic shrine; possibly depicts Nandi the bull, from Hindu mythology.

   Museum Item 1989.001.066b

Miniature stone sculpture of Ganesh (one of the most well-known and beloved representations of divinity in Hinduism).

   Museum Item 1989.001.067a

Brass bowl lamp, nailed to a snake-shaped base; used by Buddhists to burn clarified yak butter, believed to aid in meditation; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.067b

Hanging brass butter lamp attached to chain; used by Buddhists to burn clarified yak butter, believed to aid in meditation; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.067c

Brass butter lamp with the number 24 stamped into base; used by Buddhists to burn clarified yak butter, believed to aid in meditation; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.069

Intricate brass support with a cupperhood in the shape of a cobra that holds a brass bowl. The bowl has a perforated hole that is used to drip liquid. Original description from Colin Turnbull reads "brass Vvandi bowl support Lingham in clothed Lotus."

   Museum Item 1989.001.070

Incense burner cemented by symbols for sacred syllables "ma" and "aum"; origin Tamil Nadu.

   Museum Item 1989.001.071

Brass spoon for holy oil; origin Varanasi (Benares).

   Museum Item 1989.001.072a

Early metal statue of figure seated at an alter with a snake next to an urn on a platform; likely Buddhist; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.072b

Early metal figurine of a man standing at the end of a long raised platform; likely Buddhist; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.073

Hindu wick holder for a butter lamp; one circular holder surrounded by five teardrop-shaped holders, serpent-shaped handle; origin North India.

   Museum Item 1989.001.074

Brass figurine of the Hindu goddess Durga standing on decorated platform.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166j

Framed photo image of Sri Anandamayi Ma seated, eyes closed.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172a

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172b

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172c

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172d

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172e

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172f

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179f

Items from Turnbull's "Tourism and Pilgrimage" project; a knife and two clay faces on a felt board, one enamel figure souvenir, and a metal sandal charm.

2.1.2. Nepal

   Museum Item 1989.001.113a-d

A kukri, or "Gurkha knife"; large knife has decorated ivory handle and blade, metal piece at end of the handle, pointed tip; two small knives with ivory handles; all three knives fit into plain black sheath; origin Nepal.

   Museum Item 1989.001.114

Sheath of a kukri, or "Gurkha knife"; made of wood and covered in hide; leather cord attached to top of sheath; lightly pressed design on seamless side; origin Nepal.

2.1.3. Thailand

   Museum Item 1989.001.172a

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172b

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172c

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172d

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172e

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

   Museum Item 1989.001.172f

Silk wall hanging with religious theme; appears to be handmade, hand painted; possible origin India or Thailand.

2.2. East Asia

2.2.1. China

   Museum Item 1989.001.112a-b

Wooden teapot decorated metal decoration and lid; origin Tibet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.152

Coin from Anhui province in Eastern China; one side has dragon with the writing AN HWEI, other side inscribed in Chinese.

   Museum Item 1989.001.171a

Chinese wall hanging of a tiger wood-burned on thin pieces of wood.

   Museum Item 1989.001.171b

Chinese watercolor wall hanging of a tiger climbing rocks.

   Museum Item 1989.001.171c

Chinese watercolor wall hanging depicting a bridge over a river with a trail and mountains.

   Museum Item 1989.001.171d

Chinese watercolor wall hanging of three Chinese junks, a buoy, a small dwelling, and , on a river between mountains.

   Museum Item 1989.001.177a

Copper horn with seven holes, decorative copper pieces; plays like a flute; possible origin Tibet.

   Museum Item 1989.001.177b

Wooden horn in two parts with seven holes; possible origin Tibet.

2.3. Polynesia

   Museum Item 1989.001.090

Tapa mat from the Marquesas Islands, collected by Joseph Towles; design on one side in black ink or paint.

   Museum Item 1989.001.166s

This is an original hand-colored copper engraving from Cook's Voyages, c. 1785. Depicts a Tasmanian woman carrying a child; caption reads "Woman of Cape Dieman, in the Southern Extremity of New Holland. Vol. 1, to face Page 240."


3. Personal Materials, undated.

   Museum Item 1989.001.007b

Black plastic hair comb with metal prongs, black panther fist and peace sign engraved into handle.

   Museum Item 1989.001.007c

Wooden comb, shaped like a fish with two painted eyes and a tail with a hole in the middle. Stamped "Made in China."

   Museum Item 1989.001.007d

Wooden comb; decorative markings in middle section, light wood; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.007e

Wooden comb with three holes of various sizes; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.007f

Wooden comb with thick tines on one side and thin tines on the other; dark brown, origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.022a

Small wooden vase with engraved design. Stamp on bottom reads "Handmade in Yugoslavia."

   Museum Item 1989.001.022b

Small wooden pitcher with engraved design. Stamp on bottom reads "Handmade in Yugoslavia."

   Museum Item 1989.001.029

Native American leather bag with braided handle; decorated with fringe, beadwork, and cowry shells.

   Museum Item 1989.001.060c

Brass bell with wooden handle, probably used by Colin Turnbull while practicing Buddhism.

   Museum Item 1989.001.080a

Bell & Howell synchronized tape recorder in leather case, for use with black and white camera; personal belonging of Colin Turnbull.

   Museum Item 1989.001.080b

Uher reel-to-reel tape recorder with cord and AC adapter attached; used by Joseph Towles in 1972.

   Museum Item 1989.001.101c

Ivory tooth on a gold metal braided necklace with a lion charm signifying the Leo zodiac sign; personal belonging of Joseph Towles.

   Museum Item 1989.001.161a

Black Smith & Corona manual typewriter used by Joseph Towles in the field in the 1960s; top cover has the word "SILENT."

   Museum Item 1989.001.161b

Hermes Rocket travel typewriter used by Colin Turnbull and Joseph Towles; no ribbon.

   Museum Item 1989.001.169a

Buddha wearing a garment of gold seated on a gold throne in a meditative position, decorative markings on the bottom; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.169b

Brass figure of seated Buddha, eyes closed, in a meditative position; origin unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.169c

Wooden buddha seated in a meditative position.

   Museum Item 1989.001.169d

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; Brass water pitcher with ornate snake handle; main body of pitcher decorated with animals, trees, and a shrine; spout has bird and leaf motif.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173a-d

Objects from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; four pieces of jewelry: two cowry shell necklaces, one necklace of seed beads, one bracelet of seed beads.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173e

Object from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; black tassle.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173f

Object from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; brass bell with chain attached to a figure at the top.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173g

Object from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; square wooden box with removable side and metal handle, carved on four sides and reinforced on the bottom; use unknown.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173h

Object from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; wooden stand that probably held a buddha.

   Museum Item 1989.001.173i-j

Object from Colin Turnbull's personal shrine; small brass incense holder in the shape of an egg with two packages of burnt incense.

   Museum Item 1989.001.174

Colin Turnbull's alabaster desk set with two pens; engraved "JILUC," meaning "Joseph I Love You, Colin."

   Museum Item 1989.001.178

Cavalier EE Auto 35mm Camera; Modified/renamed version of Taron Auto EE (1963); in leather carrying case; c. 1965.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179a

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; set of cymbals connected by a chain, leather straps connect cymbals to chain.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179b

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; Four strands of silver beads with a screw closure and two decorated pieces with Buddhist images.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179c

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; Siva with four arms, a serpent around his neck and legs, standing on a child in front of a circle with flames.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179d

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; Copper teapot, lid has four images of a face, body has four embossed designs, greek key design around base, spout resembles elephant trunk.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179e

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; two iron rings.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179g1-2

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; two oil lamps.

   Museum Item 1989.001.179h

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; a metal cup, an ornate metal top (broken and rusted), broken wooden beads, and a gold-painted plastic top.

   Museum Item 1989.001.180

Incised cooking pot with uneven lip, rounded base, unknown origin.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181a

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; a small box of cowry shells.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181b

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; a necklace with heart-shaped enclosure and wooden beads.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181c

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; tarnished metal lion-faced ring.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181d

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; metal souvenir pin, possibly of a Buddhist temple.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181e

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; coaster with crossstitch around border.

   Museum Item 1989.001.181f

From Colin Turnbull's personal belongings; metal double-sided spoon with religious images on all sides.

   Museum Item 1989.001.183

Black typewriter case with two metal clasps and twine handle.



Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

No restrictions.

Copyright Notice

The nature of the Avery Research Center's archival holdings means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The Avery Research Center claims only physical ownership of most archival materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Joseph A. Towles Artifact Collection, Avery Research Center, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA.

Processing Information

Processed by Sue Jacoby and Jessica Farrell, 2009

Encoded by Jessica Farrell and Amanda Ross, November 2010

Funding from the Council on Library and Information Resources supported the collection processing and encoding of this finding aid.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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